Unit 34 Level 3 (Upper Intermediate- Advanced) For & Since

Apart from being used to talk about time, both “for” and “since” can also introduce what are known as “adverbial clauses of cause and reason”. When so used, “since” conveys the same meaning as “because” and “as”. For its part, the use of “for” as a conjunction is considered old-fashioned and is practically restricted to literary or very formal written registers, its meaning being similar to that of “since”.

1) First of all, let’s watch a couple of videos about adverbial clauses.

Video 1

Video 2

2) Time to read some theory in English here and here. Pay attention to all the connectors we can use to introduce an adverbial clause of reason. Would you rather read some theory in sSpanish? Click here.

3) Now, let’s do some practice:

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

Exercise 3

Exercise 4

Exercise 5

4) Translate the following sentences into English:

a) Se trata de una Ley. Y dado que Obama no la ha cambiado, los funcionarios del gobierno están perdiendo el tiempo.

b) Situada a tan solo unos metros del centro de Springfield es, sin lugar a dudas, un lugar ideal para descansar al encontrarse en una de las zonas más tranquilas de la ciudad.

c) Ahora que finalmente he encontrado tiempo para leer ese libro, se lo recomiendo absolutamente a cualquier lector interesado en la inspiradora historia personal de su autor.

d) Para alguien obligado a depender de sus ahorros dada su incapacidad para trabajar a causa de su discapacidad física, semejante plan de seguro puede ser una buena solución.

e) En tanto no ha divulgado el nombre de los miembros implicados, el comité ha decidido por unanimidad que el Presidente sea destituido.

5) Practising the sentences you have learnt today with a language exchange partner would be a very effective way to improve your speaking skills. Do you already have one? You don’t? Check this out

6) Let's learn some vocabulary. Extract all the words you don't know from this text. Look them up in an English-English dictionary like this one. Remember: Always listen to the sound of the new word first. Never learn new words just by reading! You can use Howjsay to learn how the words sound.

7) Listen and read this story. You should learn all the vocabulary and practice pronunciation. And, for the most daring, read this article from The Economist.

8) Finally, write a story of about 200/250 words using the connectors we have reviewed in this unit. You can use examples from the videos and exercises above.

If you have done all the exercises, then you've scored a 10! Congratulations!


Key to exercise 4:

a) It's a law. And since Obama hasn't changed it the government workers are just wasting their time.

b) Located just a few metres away from the centre of Springfield, it is, with no doubt, an ideal place to rest due to its being in one of the quietest areas of the city.

c) Now that I have finally found the time to read that book, I highly recommend it to any reader interested in the inspiring personal story of its author.

d) For someone forced to depend on his savings due to his being unable towork because of his physical disability, such an insurance plan may be a good solution.

e) Inasmuch as he has not divulged the name of the members involved, it was unanimously decided by the committee that the President be removed. Imprimir
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